Nota kuliah

Pada entri nota kuliah ini, ringkasan nota kuliah akan dimasukkan. Setiap minggu kuliah SKBP1023 diadakan dan nota kuliah perlu dicatat. Hal ini penting kerana, pada akhir semester akan dijalankan peperiksaan akhir semester yang membawa nilai markah 30% dalam penillaian SKBP1023 Bahasa dan Teknologi Maklumat.

Objektif Nota Kuliah
1. mengenalpasti isi penting dalam nota kuliah
2. memaparkan isi penting dalam nota kuliah secara butiran (ringkas) agar mudah diingati bagi persediaan peperiksaan akhir





Current trends in the field of English Language Teaching focus on:

  • learner autonomy,
  • learner involvement,
  • learner-generated syllabi,
  • creation of relaxed atmosphere for learning, and
  • training to relate to need-based learning.

As a result, the concept of individualized instruction is increasingly gaining importance.

Study Skills also include:

  • reading academic texts efficiently and effectively;
  • taking notes from lectures and books;
  • doing basic research;
  • using library or computer-based resources;
  • writing academic papers;
  • taking part in discussions;
  • presenting papers;
  • managing study time and preparing for examinations

Advantages of a CALL classroom: 

  1. Computer Assisted Language Learning enhances the motivation level of students.
  1. Teachers can customise any CALL program to the syllabus or course design that they are using to increase the level of proficiency in students.
  1. Computers are useful in-group activities as well as in imparting individualised instruction, which is rarely possible in a traditional classroom.
  2. There are no limitations with regard to practice-sessions or time.
  3. Students can have as many practice-sessions as they wish, repeat the tasks any number of times to acquire mastery and select the material according to their individual requirements. Thus the computer is an efficient learner-centred device.


  1. The computer is a means of communication between the programmer and the user. However in this analogy, the author and the programmer do not mostly share similar concerns.
  • While the author is bound to be a subject expert, the programmer is mostly a technician.

This gap between the author and the programmer is responsible for inappropriate lesson content, poor documentation, errors in format and content, improper feedback, etc. found in some CALL materials.

Likewise, in most of the software packages, there is little chance for the teacher to add or modify the existing programmes, even if he wishes too, since most of its locked to prevent pirating.

2.But, these limitations or problems should be seen in the backdrop of a development stage of computerisation. The rapidity                  with which computer integrated activities and taking place in the academic sphere shows that the drawbacks found in the                      CALL methods are only temporary.

The next generation of teachers and learners will be part of a computer generation. They will take for granted the skills demanded by computer technology and handle them as coolly as switching on a tape recorder or watching a television.

3.Likewise, in most of the software packages, there is little chance for the teacher to add or modify the existing programmes, even if he wishes too, since most of its locked to prevent pirating.

4.And for the few of those who develop their own material, the time spent on preparation and programming can be quite lengthy running to hours and days.


KULIAH 2 – Panduan Menggunakan Antconc

Nota kuliah ini merupakan nota yang membincangkan cara-cara penggunaan Antconc. AntConc merupakan aplikasi yang digunakan untuk memudahkan kajian korpus. Aplikasi ini akan menunjukan kekerapan penggunaan perkataan dalam sesebuah teks, kolokasi teks dan senarai perkataan yang digunakan. Dalam nota ini, cara-cara menggunakan AntConc dengan lebih terperinci dan mudah difahami.

Antconc merupakan satu perisian yang boleh diprogramkan untuk sistem Windows, Mac OS X dan Linux yang dihasilkan oleh Laurence Anthony, University Waseda, Jepun. AntConc boleh menjana baris konkordans (KWIC) dan plot pengedaran konkordans. Ia juga mempunyai alat untuk menganalisis kelompok perkataan  (berkas leksikal), n-gram, collocates, kekerapan perkataan dan kata kunci. Ia juga berfungsi untuk menyelesaikan pilihan perkataan, bentuk kata kerja dan masalah struktur ayat.


Corpus Linguistics

-McEnery and Wilson (2001:1) describe corpus linguistics as “the study of language based on examples of ‘real life’ language use”.

-“A corpus is [the name given to] a set of texts which has been put together for some purpose, usually (though not necessarily), in computer-readable form” (Wray, Trott & Bloomer, 1990:213).

Concordancing: Definition

-“A concordance is a list of examples of a particular word, part of a word or combination of words, in its contexts drawn from a text corpus. The search word is sometimes also referred to as a keyword. The most common way of displaying a concordance is by a series of lines h the keyword in context (KWIC)”.

Software to Analyse Corpora

-“Concordancing software enables you to discover patterns that exist in natural language by grouping text in such a way that they are clearly visible […] The real value of the concordancer lies in this question of visibility” (Tribble & Jones, 1997:3).

Using Corpora in Language Learning and Teaching

Organisation of the CD

-This CD contains a collection of small genre-specific academic and journalistic corpora in English, French, Gaeilge, German and Spanish.

-For each language there are two small genre-specific corpora: a journalistic corpus (100,000 words) and an academic corpus (50,000 words). The journalistic corpora are divided into four subcorpora: current affairs, editorials, reviews and sport. The academic corpora are divided into two subcorpora: theses and articles.



Nota Kuliah ini menerangkan berkenaan cara sebenar menulis permasalahan kajian dengan baik. Permasalahan kajian dalam sesuatu penyelidikan amat penting. Oleh itu, nota ini dapat memberikan kefahaman berkenaan cara-cara membina satu masalah kajian dari aspek tajuk sehinggalah sumbangan kepada masyarakat. Nota ini amat mudah difahami.

Kepentingan pernyataan masalah:

  1. kepentingan tajuk kajian
  2.  menimbulkan minat pembaca
  3. memfokuskan perhatian pembaca terhadap bagaimana kajian tersebut mampu memberi sumbangan.

Sumber masalah:

  •  Pengalaman
  •  Karya berkaitan
  •  Teori
  •  Kehidupan seharian
  •  Isu yang praktikal
  •  kajian yang lepas
  •  Pengulangan

Terdapat empat kriteria penilaian kepentingan masalah:

  1.  Sesuai untuk diselidiki; aspek peribadi, minat, kepakaran dan kemampuan.
  2.   Boleh dilakukan secara saintifik; cerapan dan bukti empirik.
  3.   Meningkatkan pengetahuan sejagat.
  4.   Menambah dan memantapkan teori (badan pengetahuan yang sedia ada).

1 Comment (+add yours?)

  1. blogspot
    Jan 24, 2015 @ 19:18:47

    What’s up, I would like to subscribe for this website to get newest
    updates, so where can i do it please help.


ce komen sket :)

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

Foreign Language Learning with Zul

Anybody can learn a new language


Just another site

Bahasa dan Teknologi Maklumat

-Solely for education-

%d bloggers like this: